The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ecohydrological model was utilized to simulate fecal contamination in the 1937 km2 Selangor River Watershed in Malaysia. The watershed conditions posed considerable challenges owing to data scarcity and tropical climate conditions, which are very different from the original conditions that SWAT was developed and tested for. Insufficient data were compensated by publicly available data (e.g., land cover, soil, and weather) to run SWAT. In addition, field monitoring and interviews clarified representative situations of pollution sources and loads, which were used as input for the model. Model parameters determined by empirical analyses in the USA (e.g., surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and temperature adjustment for bacteria die-off) are thoroughly discussed. In particular, due consideration was given to tropical climate characteristics such as intense rainfall, high potential evapotranspiration, and high temperatures throughout the year.

Categories: Air, Kualiti, Sungai
Tags: Artikel Jurnal, Data Penerbitan, Sulit