The geochemistry and distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements (REE’s) was studied in the surface sediments of the Lower Baram River during two seasons: the Monsoon (MON) and Post – monsoon (POM). The major geochemical processes controlling the distribution and mobility of major, trace and REE’s in the Lower Baram River surface sediments was revealed through factor analysis. The risk assessment of major and trace element levels was studied at three specific levels; i.e. the enrichment level [Contamination Factor (Cf), with the geo-accumulation index (Igeo)], the availability level [metals bound to different fractions, risk assessment code (RAC)], and the biological toxicity level [effect range low (ERL) and effect range medium (ERM)].

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